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Date: 2017-03-07
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LED technology 8 major trends +23 Dah Sing material technology development

日期: 2017-03-07
浏览次数: 41
China's semiconductor lighting industry in recent years in output, output value and technical indicators have made breakthrough development. In 2014, China's semiconductor lighting, lighting output value of 950 billion yuan, an increase of 43.9%. Among them, LED lighting products exports 90 billion US dollars, up 50%, LED lighting penetration rate of 20%. The first half of 2015, LED lighting products increased by about 23% year on year, 1 to May exports of 4.08 billion US dollars, a considerable year-on-year.
From the latest developments in global semiconductor lighting, the level of the global LED device luminous efficiency laboratory has more than 300lm / w, the industrialization level of 150lm / w or more, LED light efficiency of the laboratory level of light up to 200lm / w. The United States to adjust the target SSL device for the industrialization of light efficiency level of 250lm / w, LED light efficiency of the industrialization of the whole level of 200lm / w. In short, LED lighting products, such as penetration, luminous efficiency and the theoretical value and target value there is a big gap, the technology also need to have a greater breakthrough.
LED lighting technology presents eight major trends
LED lighting technology involves a wide range of multi-disciplinary technology and modern information technology, the development of eight technology development trend.
First, to improve the efficiency of LED lighting the entire lamp: LED light energy efficiency at this stage consists of six parts: the quantum efficiency, chip take light efficiency, packaging efficiency, phosphor excitation efficiency, lamp efficiency and power efficiency. In a certain boundary conditions, the theoretical value is 58%, better lighting energy efficiency is only 30% more, there is great room for advancement, the above six must reach more than 90% for the job, you need a technical breakthrough.
The second is to improve the LED light source light color quality and color characterization value: LED light source to improve the light color quality, to use RGB multi-spectral combination, that is, multi-chip combination or multi-color phosphor combination to achieve a reasonable amount of LED spectral distribution SPD , But also to control the main light color parameters, such as color tolerance, glare, photoelectric flicker. LED light source color rendering characterization is a long-term controversial topic, LED light source can achieve more flexible combination of multi-spectral, using any of the parameters of the color characterization, are flawed, the ultimate characterization may be in the form of spectra. Some experts have proposed using color gamut index (GAT) together with CRI to characterize the reduction of light on the color.
Third, LED lighting technology innovation: LED light source, lighting is currently the most important LED lighting industry, technology to accelerate the lighting shape and control features of innovation, specifically the shape of the lamp shape creativity, size, flexibility, light volume on demand adjustment , Light color and flexible changes, such as the installation location at random.
The fourth is to carry out intelligent lighting research and development and application: Intelligent lighting technology features include open, distributed, remote telemetry, compatibility, interactive, lighting and information technology is the depth of integration. The technology involves a wide range of key technologies, light-emitting modules and the interface between the drive power integration, the current urgent need for a unified basic standards, according to the actual needs of research and development to promote the application.
Five is to expand LED lighting applications: to promote the application of non-visual lighting systems, such as health care, ecological agriculture, LED visible light communication and infrared LED and UV LED applications, this content is rich, application technology is developing rapidly. LED display applications focus on the development of high-definition small-pitch display and high-definition flexible display technology to achieve high-definition LED TV and HD folding, wearable display device.
Sixth, narrow spectral LED device research: a single LED narrow spectrum can be achieved combined LED spectral flexibility, LED display can achieve greater color gamut space, is a big application areas, to achieve narrow spectral LED device technology to From the material epitaxial on a breakthrough.
Seven is the white LED devices will gradually shift to RGB Combination: RGB combination of white theory with a higher light efficiency, and convenient dimmer, color, tone color, etc., to focus on improving the green LED light effect , RGB combination may become the mainstream of ordinary lighting.
Eight is a natural light lighting will be the ultimate goal: With the development of LED multi-spectral lighting, people will pay more attention to energy saving lighting, health lighting and ecological lighting, using similar sunlight will be the best choice, that is, natural lighting, the use of LED Technology can be achieved, but to solve many technical problems.
LED lighting technology has great room for development, but also need to further improve the energy efficiency of the entire lamp and light quality. In the application to actively promote the innovation of lamps at the same time, we must continue to expand applications, such as intelligent lighting, non-visual lighting and high-definition display; technology to achieve the ultimate goal, namely natural lighting, to provide energy saving, healthy and comfortable lighting surroundings.
Development Trend of Nanoscale Luminescent New Material Technology
At this stage three types of nano-luminous new material technology developments, perhaps the future lighting of the light source.
Quantum Dot Emission Technique
Quantum dot light-emitting technology in recent years has developed rapidly, is the field of light in the new technology line.
Quantum dots: Quantum dots (QD) are made of nanotechnology, QD particles are generally between 2nm ~ 12nm, quantum dots from the light-emitting core, semiconductor shell, organic ligands, such as luminescence CdSe (cadmium selenide ) QD particles, the advantage is: can emit visible light to infrared, luminous stability, the quantum efficiency of up to 90%, combined with the LED produce rich colors, very bright warm white.
3D printing QD-LED: Princeton University for the first time to display 3D print quantum dot LED, the bottom layer is composed of nano-silver particles, the top two polymers are indium gallium, quantum dots are nano-cadmium selenide particles, the shell is zinc sulfide package , The cadmium selenide nanoparticles emit different visible light after the connection of the upper and lower electrodes, and the QD-LED is printed on a device having a curved surface such as a contact lens. The technology will be extended to 3D printing of other active devices, such as MEMS, transistors, solar cells and so on. Once the industrialization will be disruptive innovation technology.
Ultraviolet (UV) QD-LED: The University of Notre Dame is developing Gallium Nitride (QD) QDs whose electron holes pass through the tunnel (electron-penetrating barrier phenomenon) rather than the traditional drift-diffusion. Can be made of ultraviolet (UV) LED, made great progress, a detailed article reported.
Quantum Dot Hybrid LED: Hiroshima University, Japan Research quantum dot inorganic / organic hybrid light-emitting diode, can be issued white, blue, power supply voltage 6V, 78% of the effective light from the silicon quantum dots, 350 times higher output power density. New LED at room temperature and pressure through the solution processing process, known as the lighting system on a new revolution.
Quantum-dot electrical excitation blue LED: Taitung University and the Far East University of cooperation to colloidal quantum dots of cadmium sulfide, zinc sulfide to produce electrical excitation blue light-emitting diodes, similar to the organic inorganic material to do, high reliability, can replace the OLED in the plate On the application.
Quantum dot backlight technology: embedded quantum dot backlight, the use of quantum dots embedded optical film (QDEF) used in LCD backlight, quantum dot in the blue LED backlight illumination, the red, green form RGB white light. Improve LED luminous efficiency, improve LCD color saturation, the LCD color gamut increased by 30%, but also increase the backlight brightness, reduce energy consumption, and has been industrialized. This TV is expected to produce 1.3 million units in 2015, 2018 amounted to 18.7 million units.
The second generation of quantum dot display technology: Zhejiang University research team to develop the two, the quantum dots into the solution, with the crystal and the solution of the dual performance, in principle, so that electronic slowdown "pace" to promote efficient electrons and holes meet complex , Greatly enhance the efficiency of quantum dots LED, performance and stability, quantum efficiency of up to 100%, RGB color rich. Applied to the display and lighting to achieve a breakthrough.
Graphene luminescence technology: discovery of graphene luminescence is a new breakthrough, in addition to the growth of graphene on the third generation of semiconductor substrates.
Graphene light bulbs: Columbia University and Seoul University and other units to study, the graphene filament attached to the metal electrode, both sides of SiO2, suspended in the silicon substrate. The current was heated to over 2500 ° C to give a bright light, and the temperature of the graphene was not transferred to the substrate. The use of light-emitting filament and silicon substrate rebound interference, adjustable emission spectrum, known as the world's thinnest bulb, and can be applied to optical communications. The technology such as industrialization will be subversive innovation in the field of lighting.
Graphene LED: Tsinghua University recently released the use of two kinds of graphene, that is, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene (rGO) mixed composition LED, with the applied voltage changes can change the wavelength of light, the two interfaces there is a Series of discrete energy levels, in the light, sensors, flexible display applications.
SiC + graphene + GaN film: Silicon is evaporated on SiC wafer and the remaining graphene film is reliably transferred to a silicon substrate on which a direct Van der Waals epitaxy is used to grow high quality single Crystalline GaN film, will greatly reduce the cost of semiconductor components. IBM recently announced that it has acquired these technologies by investing $ 3 billion over five years in developing high-frequency transistors, photodetectors, biosensors and post-Si age components on graphene substrates, first by significantly reducing GaN blue cost.
Glass substrate + graphene + sputtering GaN: Transparent graphene multilayer film on a glass substrate and forming a GaN (AlN + n-GaN) film by pulse sputtering (PSD) on a glass substrate, + GaN and InGaN multi-layer structure MQWs + P-GaN). Its advantages: a substantial increase in the quality of GaN growth can be produced RGB combination of three primary colors LED, a significant reduction in costs. Can also be made of GaN high-mobility transistors (HEMT), the technology line if the industry will be disruptive innovation.
Graphenea Corporation announced the formation of graphene on copper foils by common chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in cooperation with Ritsumeikan University, MIT, Seoul National University, and Dongguk University of Korea. The GaN crystals were directly transferred onto a silicon substrate and then grown on graphene using radio frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE), with hexagonal symmetry growing along the C axis and from the Si (100) plane Growth of the GaN crystal to achieve the highest quality.
The high-quality GaN grown on these three kinds of graphene substrates does not adopt MOCVD equipment, and has high growth efficiency, low cost and high quality. In addition to being used for luminescence and laser, the third-generation wide bandgap semiconductor can be developed, This will be disruptive innovation.
Nano-luminous technology
Nano-light-emitting structure is diverse, here are some typical nano-light-emitting structure morphology.
Nano-linear LED: Boer Institute of nano-linear LED, the nanowire core is GaN material, about 2 microns in length, diameter of about 10 to 500 nm, the external material is InGaN. The light in the diode is determined by the mechanical tension between the two materials, which can be used to provide higher brightness with less energy, are more energy efficient, can be used in cell phones, televisions and many forms of lighting, Future Lighting World.
Ultra-thin non-crystalline dielectric film Light-emitting material: the United States Texas Agricultural University to develop a light-emitting chip, the use of silicon wafers in the room temperature sputtering deposition method made of dielectric film, including nanocrystalline layer, can enhance the luminous density, in the process Can be compatible with silicon IC, the process is simple, is a new nano-luminescent materials.
3D printing "light paper": Rohinni, Texas, US companies use 3D printing light paper (Light paper), the ink and micro-LED hybrid printed on the semiconductor layer, and sandwiched between the other two materials, micro-LED only red blood cell size, when Electronic through the mini-LED light paper when lit, known as the world's thinnest LED lights.
Thinnest LED: University of Washington researchers have developed the world's thinnest LED, the equivalent of three atoms thick, this folding LED, the future for portable, flexible wearable equipment.
Ultra-high-speed LED: Duke University, the United States through the metal nano-cubes and gold film between the fluorescent molecules, high-speed LED, 75 silver nano cube, and trapped inside the light, increasing the intensity of light, And the photon emission is 1000 times faster than that of conventional LEDs. It can also be used as a single photon source for quantum cryptosystems and supports secure optical communication.
LED close to the sun: Italy InSubria University, the use of nanoparticle panels on the white LED light source scattering, get close to the sun light, the use of Rayleigh scattering principle, the white LED array diffusion "blue sky" effect, or yellowish speckle simulation Sunlight, the existing products, the effect is good, can greatly enhance the quality of light color.
Ultra-clear flexible display technology: the use of nanotechnology PCM phase-change material, can be two states of the so-called GST, crystal state and glass state, this GST current pulses, the crystal glass cycle can be more than 1 million times / . Three-layer structure: conductive glass + GST + conductive glass, each layer is only a few nano-thick, the technology may produce ultra-thin, ultra-high-speed, low power, high-definition, folding color display.
Other luminescent materials
White laser: the University of Arizona developed a R, G, B laser can be mixed into white, can also be used for optical communication, 10 to 100 times faster than ordinary LED.
Nakamura repair II using different technical routes, proposed for the third generation of laser lighting lighting.
Phosphor light-emitting materials: Australian National University found that thin-layer phosphorescence characteristics, can be used for PV and LED.
Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED): has entered the field of flat lighting, it was predicted that the future will account for a quarter of the field of lighting.
Perovskite LED: Cambridge University, Oxford University and other joint development of calcium titanium LED, simple process, low cost, claiming that 5 years after the LED can be industrialized.
In recent years, nanoscale luminescent new materials technology has made great progress, especially quantum dot luminescence, graphene luminescence and nanometer luminescence technology, have pioneering and disruptive innovation technology, may be the future lighting new light source, to cause us The industry's attention.
The growth of high-quality crystals on graphene substrates, in addition to luminescence and lasers, will greatly advance the development of third-generation wide-band-gap semiconductor materials, supporting the development of post-silicon era high-performance components. (Responsible for: Nicole)

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